Basti is the most important therapy given for simple to the most complicated diseases as explained by Acharya’s not merely enema.
Acharya Charaka says, Basti is the pradhana chikitsa for Vata, and vata is responsible for doshas spreading to other sthana. He also adds that as Bhaskara(sun) pulls out the bhusara(moisture) from earth, Basti pulls out doshas from apadatalmurdha sthana (from sole of foot to head), and brings to pakvashaya (rectum). Vagbhatacharya mentions as a cloth immersed in coloured water, takes colour and leaves water, Basti takes doshas from deha.
Acharya Sushruta explains as the moisture absorbed by roots spread to all parts of plants, the veerya of medicine given through basti spreads to all parts of the body.
The many aspects of it has been seen and can clearly be observed that it has purely scientific background as mentioned by various Ayurvedic Acharyas.
On the basis of Adhisthana (Location)
- Pakvashayagata Basti (Medcine are administered through Anal canal into the Colon).
- Uttara Basti (Medcine are introduced through urethra into the Urinary Bladder or through Vaigina into the Uterus)
On the basis of Basti Dravya
- Snaihika Basti: The medicated drugs administered is in the form of Sneha (Ghrita, Taila, Vasa, Majja)
- Niruha Basti: The medicated drugs administered is in the form of decoction(Quath)
Basti Chikitsa is done in stages
- Step 1: Pre Procedure or Purvakarma
- Step 2: Main Procedure also called Pradhankarma
- Step 3: Post Procedure or Paschatkarma
Treatment includes snehana and swedana as purvakarma. Then basti dravayas are introduced and patient is allowed to take rest for given time. All this is precisely done by a vaidya under complete supervision and choose right drug for the particular disease and to take care of procedure till the completion of the procedure.